HAPLOGROUP X IN AMERICA (C.10,000 BC)
DNA analysis shows that in their journeys to the Americas, both the Atlantians and later the Minoans (a post-Atlantian culture) left their genetic fingerprint behind. In fact, for the longest time, geneticists wondered and debated how haplogroup X, a Mediterranean gene, migrated to America thousands of years before the American continent was discovered by the Europeans. More specifically, how did some tribes in North America, and suspiciously those that originated around the Great Lakes like the Ojibwa and Chippewa Indians, carry this particular gene while other tribes further away did not. The mystery became deeper when scientists suggested that the Mediterranean haplogroup X somehow could have “mutated” among the North American tribes as early as 10,000 to 12,000 years ago.
For those not familiar with genetics, each race around the planet is categorized by scientists according to their particular DNA haplogroup. For example, most American Indians contain haplogroups A, B, C and D. As haplogroups A, C and D are also found primarily in Asia, and B mainly in China and Japan, it is highly speculated by anthropologists that these four haplogroups traveled to North America during a glacier period when continents were once connected by ice. A more recent study on certain Native American tribes, though, like the Iroquois Indians revealed that in addition to the above haplogroups that scientists had expected to find, they were also found to carry haplogroup X. This discovery came as a big surprise because haplogroup X originates from an area that incorporates the eastern Mediterranean, the Palestinian territories, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Cyprus and Israel.
If Middle Easterners somehow made it to America 10,000 years ago, why did only tribes around the Great Lakes carry this particular gene? And, most importantly, how did Mediterranean people manage the trip to North America? Is it possible, as most anthropologists suggest, that 10,000 to 12,000 years ago they traveled to America while ice still connected the Asian and American continents at the Bering Strait? After all, we are told this is how haplogroups A, B, C and D crossed over to the Americas. A huge problem with this theory, though, is that en route from the Middle East to America, the absolute furthest region east of the Mediterranean to carry traces of haplogroup X is that of the Altai Republic in southern Russia. No sign of haplogroup X exists further east of that region. The scientific community and those who support this migration hypothesis are simply unable to conclusively explain the huge void of Haplogroup X between southern Russia and the Great Lakes of North America.
Of course, there are those who support an earlier theory, called the “Solutrean hypothesis,” which suggests the crossing was not through the Bering Strait, but instead, those carrying haplogroup X crossed over to America on an ice sheet that partially connected Europe with North America. This scenario, suggested that out of the ten distinct haplogroups present in northern Europe at the time (H,V,J,HV,U,T,UK,X,W & I), conveniently enough, only haplogroup X managed the trip to America. The model also in this hypothesis required that the early travelers, over 10,000 years ago, crossed over to the Americas in small watercrafts constructed out of animal skins and used survival skills similar to those of Inuit people, not exactly the trades of a Mediterranean culture. Considering all this, it is no wonder that another study done in 2008, using relevant oceanographic data, pointed out that the conditions for such a crossing were not favorable, and the Solutrean hypothesis was afterwards dismissed by the majority of scientists. Therefore, the mystery of how haplogroup X made it to North America still remains. If somehow the path to America was open from both directions (east or west,) and any European gene could follow haplogroup X to the New World, how do we explain that only a single European/Mediterranean gene (out of a dozen) made this trip 10,000 years ago, while at the same time, on the opposite side every one of the four Asian haplogroups sequentially managed to follow each other through the Bering Strait? Conversely though, if haplogroup X did not enter the American continent via the Atlantic, how do we explain that elevated concentrations of haplogroup X also "strangely" exist in Scotland, Orkney Islands, Faroe Islands and Iceland, essentially all the "island stops" on the way to North America from Europe. We must also not ignore that official mtDNA maps show that that the highest concentrations of haplogroup X exist on the Atlantic side, around the region of the Great Lakes, and not in Alaska or alongside the west coast where according to mainstream anthropologists haplogroup X infiltrated America.
Before allowing for religious beliefs to become reasonable theories, like the Mormon hypothesis that claims 10,000 years ago Israelites “appeared” in America with God’s “assistance,” is it time perhaps to give Plato’s story another fresh look? At least his explanation, in comparison to others, seems to be more plausible. After all, let us not forget that when the original human migration scenarios were first proposed, in order to best explain the presence of haplogroup X in America, the mainstream academia assumed that 10,000 years ago humans were still behaving as hunters and gatherers. With that in mind, it is no wonder that Plato’s story was immediately dismissed as a myth.
Recent archaeological discoveries, however, like that of Gobekli Tepe in Turkey (10,000 BC) and the sunken city off the coast of West India (8000 BC), not only proved that humans had advanced much earlier in time, but they could have plausibly reached North America. Unlike other mainstream theories, Plato’s story not only places haplogroup X in America in the right chronology but explains how it arrived at the Great Lakes in a contained environment. Plato’s account seems to provide a good explanation for why other European genes did not tag along on that voyage. Ten thousand years ago, with the ocean levels at least 400 feet lower, there was so much more landmass between Scotland, Iceland and Greenland that island hopping to North America could not have been more difficult than crisscrossing the Mediterranean. Any prehistoric Mediterranean navigator, who could travel as far as Scotland, ultimately could have developed the skills to navigate all the way to North America.
Finally, Plato’s claim of a Mediterranean culture coming to America 10 millennia ago corroborates the existence of “Kennewick Man,” a name given to a 9800-year-old set of skeletal remains found on a bank of the Columbia River in Kennewick, Washington (July 28th, 1996). According to forensic anthropologists Dr. James Chatters and Douglass Owsley (among others), these remains are believed to belong to a Caucasoid male.
© Images by Christos A. Djonis